Installation of Linux

If you plan to print this information it will take many sheets of paper.

Before you start the installation process, one of the following conditions must be met:

  • Your computer must have enough unpartitioned disk space for the installation of Red Hat Linux.
  • You must have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to install Red Hat Linux.
Installation Disk Space Requirements

Personal Desktop
A personal desktop installation, including a graphical desktop environment, requires at least 1.7GB of free space. Choosing both the GNOME and KDE desktop environments requires at least 1.8GB of free disk space.

Workstation
A workstation installation, including a graphical desktop environment and software development tools, requires at least 2.1GB of free space. Choosing both the GNOME and KDE desktop environments requires at least 2.2GB of free disk space.

Server
A server installation requires 850MB for a minimal installation without X (the graphical environment), at least 1.5GB of free space if all package groups other than X are installed, and at least 5.0GB to install all packages including the GNOME and KDE desktop environments.

Custom
A Custom installation requires 475MB for a minimal installation and at least 5.0GB of free space if every package is selected.

Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?
There are several methods that can be used to install Red Hat Linux. 

Installing from a CD-ROM requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Linux 9 product, or you have a Red Hat Linux CD-ROM, and you have a CD-ROM drive. Most new computers will allow booting from the CD-ROM. If your system will support booting from the CD-ROM, it is an easy way to begin a local CD-ROM installation. 
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your CD-ROM drive. 

Alternative Boot Methods

Boot CD-ROM
If you can boot using the CD-ROM drive, you can create your own CD-ROM to boot the installation program. This may be useful, for example, if you are performing an installation over a network or from a hard drive. If you choose to create a boot CD-ROM, it will not be necessary to create a driver diskette.

If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM drive, the following alternative boot method is available: 

Boot Diskette
If you need a boot diskette, you must create it. A boot diskette will be needed if you cannot boot from the CD-ROM. It can be used to boot from a network, block, or PCMCIA device (you will also need the corresponding driver diskette for your booting scenario).

The boot diskette image file, bootdisk.img, is located in the images directory on your Red Hat Linux CD-ROM.  If you choose to create a boot diskette, you must also create the appropriate driver diskette if you are installing over a network or from a hard drive.

Using the rawrite Utility
To make a diskette using MS-DOS, use the rawrite utility included on the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM in the dosutils directory. First, label a blank, formatted 3.5-inch diskette appropriately (such as "Boot Disk" or "Updates Disk"). Insert it into the diskette drive. Then, use the following commands (assuming your CD-ROM is drive D:): 

C:\> d:
D:\> cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils> rawrite
Enter disk image source file name: ..\images\bootdisk.img
Enter target diskette drive: a:
Please insert a formatted diskette into drive A: and
press --ENTER-- : [Enter]
D:\dosutils>
 

First, rawrite asks you for the filename of a diskette image; enter the directory and name of the image you wish to write (for example, ..\images\bootdisk.img). Then rawrite asks for a diskette drive to write the image to; enter a:. Finally, rawrite asks for confirmation that a formatted diskette is in the drive you have selected. After pressing [Enter] to confirm, rawrite copies the image file onto the diskette. If you need to make another diskette, label that diskette, and run rawrite again, specifying the appropriate image file. 

Using the dd Command
To make a diskette under Linux (or any other Linux-like operating system), you must have permission to write to the device representing a 3.5-inch diskette drive (known as /dev/fd0 under Linux). 

First, label a blank, formatted diskette appropriately (such as "Boot Diskette" or "Updates Diskette"). Insert it into the diskette drive (but do not mount[3] the diskette). After mounting the Red Hat Linux CD-ROM, change to the directory containing the desired image file, and use the following command (changing the name of the image file and diskette device as appropriate): 

dd if=bootdisk.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=1440k
 

To make another diskette, label that diskette, and run dd again, specifying the appropriate image file. 

Notes
A boot diskette can be a diskette you created to boot (or start) the installation program, or it can be a diskette you create during the installation process that can later be used to boot the operating system. Normally, your computer boots from a hard disk, but if the hard disk is damaged, you can boot the computer from a bootable diskette.

When you mount a diskette or CD-ROM, you make that device's contents available to you.

Booting the Installation Program
Insert the boot diskette into your computer's first diskette drive and reboot (or boot using the CD-ROM, if your computer supports booting from it). Your BIOS settings may need to be changed to allow you to boot from the diskette or CD-ROM. 
 

 *Tip : To change your BIOS settings, watch the instructions provided on your display when your computer first boots. You will see a line of text telling you to press the [Del] or [F1] key to enter the BIOS settings. 

Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C] or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the CD-ROM is first in your boot order and that C or A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to first look at the CD-ROM drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the CD-ROM drive, it will then check your hard drive or diskette drive. Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that came with your system. 
 

After a short delay, a screen containing the boot: prompt should appear. The screen contains information on a variety of boot options. Each boot option also has one or more help screens associated with it. To access a help screen, press the appropriate function key as listed in the line at the bottom of the screen. 

As you boot the installation program, be aware of two issues:

1. Once you see the boot: prompt, the installation program will automatically begin if you take no action within the first minute. To disable this feature, press one of the help screen function keys. 

2. If you press a help screen function key, there will be a slight delay while the help screen is read from the boot media. 

Normally, you only need to press [Enter] to boot. Watch the boot messages to see if the Linux kernel detects your hardware. If your hardware is properly detected, please continue to the next section. If it does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to restart the installation in expert mode. 

Additional Boot Options
While it is easiest for a user to boot from CD-ROM and perform a graphical installation, sometimes there are installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. This section discusses additional boot options available for Red Hat Linux.

If you do not wish to perform a graphical installation, you can start a text mode installation using the following boot command: 

boot: linux text

**Note:  The text mode is similar to Windows, and unless you know the line codes for linux it would be a GOOD idea to stick with the graphical installation.
 

The installation program will prompt you to insert a CD or select an ISO image to test, and select OK to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be performed on any Red Hat Linux CD and does not have to be performed in a specific order (for example, CD #1 does not have the be the first CD you verify). It is strongly recommended to perform this operation on any Red Hat Linux CD that was created from downloaded ISO images. This procedure works with CD-based installations and hard drive and NFS installations using ISO images.

If the installation program does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to restart the installation in expert mode. Enter expert mode using the following boot command:

boot: linux noprobe
 

For text mode installations, use:

boot: linux text noprobe
 

Expert mode disables most hardware probing, and gives you the option of entering options for the drivers loaded during the installation. The initial boot messages will not contain any references to SCSI or network cards. This is normal; these devices are supported by modules that are loaded during the installation process.

If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command: 

boot: linux console=<device>
 

For text mode installations, use:

boot: linux text console=<device>
 

In the above command, <device> should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0 or ttyS1). For example, linux text console=ttyS0,115200n8. 

Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to instruct the kernel to use all the RAM in a system with 128 MB of RAM, enter: 

boot: linux mem=128M
 

For text mode installations, use:

boot: linux text mem=128M
 

After entering any options, press [Enter] to boot using those options. 

If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The boot options will be needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation. 

Booting Without Diskettes
The Red Hat Linux CD-ROM can be booted by computers that support bootable CD-ROMs. Not all computers support this feature, so if your system cannot boot from the CD-ROM, there is one other way to start the installation without using a boot diskette. The following method is specific to x86-based computers only. 

If you have MS-DOS installed on your system, you can boot directly from the CD-ROM drive without using a boot diskette. To do this (assuming your CD-ROM is drive d:), use the following commands: 

C:\> d:
D:\> cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils> autoboot.bat
 

This method will not work if run in a DOS window — the autoboot.bat file must be executed with DOS as the only operating system. In other words, Windows cannot be running. 

If your computer cannot boot directly from CD-ROM (and you cannot use a DOS-based autoboot.bat), you will have to use a boot diskette to start the installation. 

Selecting an Installation Method
What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods are available: 
 

CD-ROM
If you have a CD-ROM drive and the Red Hat Linux CD-ROMs, you can use this method. You will need a boot diskette or a bootable CD-ROM. A PCMCIA driver diskette may also be used. 

Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you can use this method. You will need a boot diskette. A PCMCIA driver diskette may also be used. 

NFS Image
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat Linux, you can use this method. You will need a network driver diskette. A PCMCIA driver diskette may also be used.  Please note that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI mode. 

FTP
If you are installing directly from an FTP server, use this method. You will need a network driver diskette. A PCMCIA driver diskette may also be used. 

HTTP
If you are installing directly from an HTTP (Web) server, use this method. You will need a network driver diskette. A PCMCIA driver diskette may also be used. 

Installing from CD-ROM

 Note 
  If you already have another operating system installed you can create a dual boot system so that you can use both Red Hat Linux and the other operating system.

To install Red Hat Linux from a CD-ROM, choose the CD-ROM option from the boot loader screen and select OK. When prompted, insert the Red Hat Linux CD into your CD-ROM drive (if you did not boot from the CD). Once the CD is in the CD-ROM drive, select OK, and press [Enter]. 

The installation program will then probe your system and attempt to identify your CD-ROM drive. It will start by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) CD-ROM drive. If found, you will continue to the next stage of the installation process.
 

 Note
  To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot diskette or CD-ROM. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the About to Install screen. 

If your CD-ROM drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI CD-ROM, you can manually select the SCSI CD-ROM type when prompted. 

Select SCSI if your CD-ROM drive is attached to a supported SCSI adapter; the installation program will then ask you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers will detect your SCSI adapter automatically. 
 

 Tip
  A partial list of optional parameters for CD-ROM drives can be found in the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide, in the General Parameters and Modules appendix. 
 

What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
If you have an IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM, but the installation program fails to find your IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM and asks you what type of CD-ROM drive you have, try the following boot command. Restart the installation, and at the boot: prompt enter linux hdX=cdrom. Replace the X with one of the following letters, depending on the interface the unit is connected to, and whether it is configured as master or slave (also known as primary and secondary): 
 

a — first IDE controller, master 

b — first IDE controller, slave 

c — second IDE controller, master 

d — second IDE controller, slave 

If you have a third and/or fourth controller, continue assigning letters in alphabetical order, going from controller to controller, and master to slave. 

. Installing from a Hard Drive

 Note
  Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, or FAT file systems. If you have a file system other than those listed here, such as reiserfs, you will not be able to perform a hard drive installation.
 

Hard drive installations require the use of the ISO (or CD-ROM) images. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of a CD-ROM disk image. Because Red Hat Linux has so many packages included with its distribution, there are several ISO images available. After placing the required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Linux CD-ROMs) in a directory, choose to install from the hard drive. You will then point the installation program at that directory to perform the installation. 

Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation will help to avoid problems that are often encountered during a hard drive installation. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to performing an installation, use an md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems). An md5sum program should be available on the same server as the ISO images. 

 Note
  ISO images have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO image, at the installation boot prompt, type:

boot: linux mediacheck

Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the directory from which you install, then it will be used for installation program updates. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat Linux, as well as how to apply the installation program updates.
 
 

Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation

The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, if you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Linux. 

Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat ISO images. There is also a field labeled Directory holding images. If the ISO images are not in the root (top-level) directory of that partition, enter the full path to the ISO images (for example, if the ISO images are in /test/new, you would enter /test/new). 

After you have identified the disk partition, you will next see the Welcome dialog. 

Preparing for a Network Installation
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog asks for your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the device via DHCP or manually. If manually, enter the IP address you are using during installation and press [Enter]. The installation program attempts to guess your Netmask based on your IP address; you may change the netmask if it is incorrect. Press [Enter]. The installation program guesses the Default gateway and Primary nameserver addresses from your IP address and netmask; you may change them if they are incorrect. 

Setting Up the Server
Because the Red Hat Linux 9 installation program is capable of installing Red Hat Linux from multiple CD-ROMs, if you intend to support NFS, FTP, or HTTP installations you must copy the RedHat directory from each CD-ROM comprising Red Hat Linux 9 onto a disk drive (in other words, you must create an installation tree): 
 

 Tip
  An installation tree is the location for all files needed to run and install the Red Hat Linux operating system.

An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of a CD-ROM disk image. Because Red Hat Linux has so many packages included with its distribution, there are several ISO images available.

An installation tree differs from an ISO image in that ISO images are broken down into smaller subsets of files which the installation program then calls for per ISO image, while an installation tree contains all the necessary files in one complete file structure. Individual ISO images can be combined to create an installation tree.
 
 

For each binary CD-ROM, execute the following commands:
 

mount /mnt/cdrom 

cp -var /mnt/cdrom/RedHat /location/of/disk/space 

Where /location/of/disk/space is a directory you create such as /export/9/.

umount /mnt/cdrom 

Note that the Release Notes are not included in the RedHat directory. Unless they are specifically copied over, the Release Notes will not be available during your installation of Red Hat Linux.

The Release Notes are also available online from http://www.redhat.com/docs.

Next, make /location/of/disk/space accessible to the installation program (for example, exporting it for NFS installations) by editing the /etc/exports file and adding the line:

/location/of/disk/space *(ro)
 

Finally, run the following command to make /location/of/disk/space available as read-only to each system to mount:

/sbin/service nfs reload
 

Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the directory from which you install, then it will be used for installation program updates. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat Linux, as well as how to apply the installation program updates.

If you are not sure how to do this, refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide and the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide for more information. 
 

Welcome to Red Hat Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. Please read over the help text in the left panel for additional instructions and information on where to register your Red Hat Linux product. 

Please notice the Hide Help button at the bottom left corner of the screen. The help screen is open by default. If you do not want to view the help information, click on Hide Help to minimize the help portion of the screen. 
Click Next to continue

Language Selection
Using your mouse, select the language you would prefer to use for the installation. 

Selecting the appropriate language will also help target your time zone configuration later in the installation. The installation program will try to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify on this screen. 
 


 
 

Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.

Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default. 

Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
 


 

 Tip 
  To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the Keyboard Configuration Tool.
 

Type the redhat-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue. 

Mouse Configuration
Choose the correct mouse type for your system. If you cannot find an exact match, choose a mouse type that you are sure is compatible with your system 

To determine your mouse's interface, follow the mouse cable back to where it plugs into your system and use the following diagrams. If you are installing Red Hat Linux on a laptop computer, in most cases the pointing device will be PS/2 compatible. 
 

.

If you cannot find a mouse that you are sure is compatible with your system, select one of the Generic entries, based on your mouse's number of buttons, and its interface. 

 Tip
  If you have a scroll mouse, select the Generic - Wheel Mouse entry (with your proper mouse port) as the compatible mouse type.
 

If you have a PS/2, USB, or Bus mouse, you do not need to pick a port and device. If you have a serial mouse, choose the correct port and device that your serial mouse is on. 

The Emulate 3 buttons checkbox allows you to use a two-button mouse as if it had three buttons. In general, the graphical interface (the X Window System) is easier to use with a three-button mouse. If you select this checkbox, you can emulate a third, "middle" button by pressing both mouse buttons simultaneously. 

 Tip
  To change your mouse configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Mouse Configuration Tool.

Type the redhat-config-mouse command in a shell prompt to launch the Mouse Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.

To configure your mouse to work as a left-handed mouse, reset the order of the mouse buttons. To do this, after you have booted the system, type gpm -B 321 at the shell prompt.

Choosing to Upgrade or Install
The Upgrade Examine screen appears automatically if the installation program detects a prior version of Red Hat Linux on your system.
 

 Note
  If the contents of your /etc/redhat-release file have been changed from the default, your Red Hat Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade to Red Hat Linux 9.

You can relax some of the checks against this file by booting with the following boot command:

boot: linux upgradeany
 

Use the linux upgradeany command if your Red Hat Linux installation was not given as an option to upgrade.
 

If you would like to perform an upgrade, select Perform an upgrade of an existing installation and refer to Appendix A Upgrading Your Current System for further instructions.

Be sure to select Customize packages to be upgraded if you would to have more control over which packages are upgraded on your system.

To perform a new installation of Red Hat Linux on your system, select Perform a new Red Hat Linux installation and click Next.
 

Installation Type
Choose the type of installation you would like to perform. Red Hat Linux allows you to choose the installation type that best fits your needs. Your options are Personal Desktop, Workstation, Server, Custom, and Upgrade. 
 
 

Choosing Install 


 
 

Disk Partitioning Setup
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run more than one operating system. 

On this screen, you can choose to perform automatic partitioning, or manual partitioning using Disk Druid. 

Automatic partitioning allows you to perform an installation without having to partition your drive(s) yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is recommended that you do not choose to partition manually and instead let the installation program partition for you. 

To partition manually, choose the Disk Druid partitioning tool. 
 

 Warning 
  The Red Hat Update Agent downloads updated packages to /var/spool/up2date by default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var partition, be sure to create the partition large enough to download package updates.
 

Disk Partitioning Setup

If you chose to manually partition using Disk Druid. (Note:  This is not the best choice for those of you who are new to Linux.)
 

 Warning
  If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup phase of the installation saying something similar to, "The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive. ",   you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.

Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began).

No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems should always be made.
 

Automatic Partitioning
Automatic partitioning allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed (if any) from your system. Your options are: 
 

Remove all Linux partitions on this system — select this option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux installation). This will not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drive(s) (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions). 

Remove all partitions on this system — select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as Windows 9x/NT/2000/ME/XP or NTFS partitions). 
 

 Caution
  If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drive(s) will be removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard drive(s) where you are installing Red Hat Linux. 
 

Keep all partitions and use existing free space — select this option to retain your current data and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your hard drive(s). 
 
 

Automatic Partitioning

Using your mouse, choose the hard drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Linux to be installed. If you have two or more hard drives, you can choose which hard drive(s) should contain this installation. Unselected hard drives, and any data on them, will not be touched. 
 

 Note
  It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your hard drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss all of your data.
 

To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, you will see the partitions created for you in Disk Druid. You will also be able to make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your needs. 

***Unless you are very experienced with Linux avoid using the Disk Druid to partition the drive yourself.  This can get somewhat confusing.***

Network Configuration
If you do not have a network device, you will not see this screen. Skip ahead to Firewall Configuration. 

If you have a network device and you have not already configured your networking (such as supplying a network driver diskette you created and entering in your network information as prompted), you now have the opportunity to do so. 

Network Configuration

The installation program will automatically detect any network devices you have and display them in the Network Devices list.

Once you have selected a network device, click Edit. From the Edit Interface pop-up screen, you can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the device via DHCP (or manually if DHCP is not selected) and you can choose to activate the device at boot time. If you select Activate on boot, your network interface will be started when you boot. If you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure what to provide here, please contact your network administrator. 
 
 

Editing a Network Device

 Note
  Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will not work for your own network configuration. If you are not sure what values to enter, contact your network administrator for assistance.

If you have a hostname (fully qualified domain name) for the network device, you can choose to have DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) automatically detect it or you can manually enter the hostname in the field provided. 

Finally, if you entered the IP and Netmask information manually, you may also enter the Gateway address and the Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary DNS addresses. 

 Tip
  Even if your computer is not part of a network, you can enter a hostname for your system. If you do not take this opportunity to enter a name, your system will be known as localhost. 

 Tip
  To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network Administration Tool.

Type the redhat-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.

Firewall Configuration
Red Hat Linux offers firewall protection for enhanced system security. A firewall exists between your computer and the network, and determines which resources on your computer remote users on the network can access. A properly configured firewall can greatly increase the security of your system. 
 

Choose the appropriate security level for your system.

High
If you choose High, your system will not accept connections (other than the default settings) that are not explicitly defined by you. By default, only the following connections are allowed: 
 

DNS replies

DHCP — so any network interfaces that use DHCP can be properly configured

If you choose High, your firewall will not allow the following: 
 

Active mode FTP (passive mode FTP, used by default in most clients, should still work)

IRC DCC file transfers

RealAudio™

Remote X Window System clients

If you are connecting your system to the Internet, but do not plan to run a server, this is the safest choice. If additional services are needed, you can choose Customize to allow specific services through the firewall.
 

 Note
  If you select a medium or high firewall to be setup during this installation, network authentication methods (NIS and LDAP) will not work.
 

Medium
If you choose Medium, your firewall will not allow remote machines to have access to certain resources on your system. By default, access to the following resources are not allowed: 
 

Ports lower than 1023 — the standard reserved ports, used by most system services, such as FTP, SSH, telnet, HTTP, and NIS. 

The NFS server port (2049) — NFS is disabled for both remote severs and local clients.

The local X Window System display for remote X clients.

The X Font server port (by default, xfs does not listen on the network; it is disabled in the font server).

If you want to allow resources such as RealAudio™ while still blocking access to normal system services, choose Medium. Select Customize to allow specific services through the firewall. 
 

Language Support Selection
You can install and support multiple languages for use on your system. 

You must select a language to use as the default language. The default language will be used on the system once the installation is complete. If you choose to install other languages during this installation, you can change your default language after the installation. 

If you are only going to use one language on your system, selecting only that language will save significant disk space. The default language is the language you selected to use during the installation.
 

 Caution
  If you select only one language, you will only be able to use that specified language after the installation is complete.

To use more than one language on your system, choose specific languages to be installed or select all languages to have all available languages installed on your Red Hat Linux system. 

Use the Reset button to cancel your selections. Resetting will revert to the default; only the language you selected for use during the installation will be installed. 
 

 Tip
  To change the language configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Language Configuration Tool.

Type the redhat-config-language command in a shell prompt to launch the Language Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.
 

Time Zone Configuration
You can set your time zone by selecting your computer's physical location or by specifying your time zone's offset from Universal Time, Coordinated (UTC). 

Notice the two tabs at the top of the screen. The first tab allows you to configure your time zone by your location. 

On the interactive map, you can also click on a specific city, which is marked by a yellow dot; a red X will appear indicating your selection. You can also scroll through a list and choose a time zone. 

The second tab allows you to specify a UTC offset. The tab displays a list of offsets to choose from, as well as an option to set daylight saving time. 

On both tabs, you can select System Clock uses UTC. Please select this if you know that your system is set to UTC. 
 

 Tip
  To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.

Type the redhat-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.

To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command timeconfig.
 

Set Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT machines. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system. 
 

 Note
  The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration. 

Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules will minimize the chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system. 
 

 Tip
  To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press [Enter]. Then, enter the root password and press [Enter]. 
 

The installation program will prompt you to set a root password for your system. You must enter a root password. The installation program will not let you proceed to the next section without entering a root password. 

The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program will ask you to enter them again. 

You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create. 
 

 Note 
  Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords could be considered a security risk. 
 
 

 Tip
  To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password Tool.

Type the redhat-config-rootpassword command in a shell prompt to launch the Root Password Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.
 

Notes A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Linux system. You should only log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.

Authentication Configuration
If you are performing a personal desktop, workstation or server installation, please skip ahead to Package Group Selection. 

You may skip this section if you will not be setting up network passwords. If you do not know whether you should do this, please ask your system administrator for assistance. 

Unless you are setting up NIS authentication, you will notice that only MD5 and shadow passwords are selected. We recommend you use both to make your machine as secure as possible. 

To configure the NIS option, you must be connected to an NIS network. If you are not sure whether you are connected to an NIS network, please ask your system administrator. 

Enable MD5 passwords — allows a long password to be used (up to 256 characters), instead of the standard eight characters or less. 

Enable shadow passwords — provides a secure method for retaining passwords. The passwords are stored in /etc/shadow, which can only be read by root. 

Enable NIS — allows you to run a group of computers in the same Network Information Service domain with a common password and group file. You can choose from the following options: 
 

NIS Domain — allows you to specify the domain or group of computers your system belongs to. 

Use broadcast to find NIS server — allows you to broadcast a message to your local area network to find an available NIS server. 

NIS Server — causes your computer to use a specific NIS server, rather than broadcasting a message to the local area network asking for any available server to host your system. 
 

 Note
  If you have selected a medium or high firewall to be setup during this installation, network authentication methods (NIS and LDAP) will not work.
 

Enable LDAP — tells your computer to use LDAP for some or all authentication. LDAP consolidates certain types of information within your organization. For example, all of the different lists of users within your organization can be merged into one LDAP directory. For more information about LDAP, refer to the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). You can choose from the following options: 
 

LDAP Server — allows you to access a specified server (by providing an IP address) running the LDAP protocol. 

LDAP Base DN — allows you to look up user information by its Distinguished Name (DN). 

Use TLS (Transport Layer Security) lookups — this option allows LDAP to send encrypted user names and passwords to an LDAP server before authentication. 

Enable Kerberos — Kerberos is a secure system for providing network authentication services. For more information about Kerberos, see the chapter titled Kerberos in the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. There are three options to choose from here: 
 

Realm — this option allows you to access a network that uses Kerberos, composed of one or a few servers (also known as KDCs) and a potentially large number of clients. 

KDC — this option allows you access to the Key Distribution Center (KDC), a machine that issues Kerberos tickets (sometimes called a Ticket Granting Server or TGS). 

Admin Server — this option allows you to access a server running kadmind. 

Enable SMB Authentication — Sets up PAM to use an SMB server to authenticate users. You must supply two pieces of information here:
 

SMB Server — Indicates which SMB server your workstation will connect to for authentication.

SMB Workgroup — Indicates which workgroup the configured SMB servers are in.
 

 Tip
  To change your authentication configuration after you have completed the installation, use the authconfig command. 

Type the authconfig command in a shell prompt. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.
 

Package Group Selection
After your partitions have been selected and configured for formatting, you are ready to select packages for installation. 

Unless you choose a custom installation, the installation program will automatically choose most packages for you.

For example, if you were to perform a Personal Desktop installation, you may see a screen such as this:
 





To select packages individually, check the Customize the set of packages to be installed checkbox. Refer to Selecting Individual Packages for further instructions.

You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two. 

To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it. 
 
 

Package Group Selection

Select each component you wish to install. Selecting Everything (at the end of the component list) during a custom installation installs all packages included with Red Hat Linux. 

Once a package group has been selected, click on Details to view which packages will be installed by default and to add or remove optional packages from that group. 
 

Package Group Details

To select packages individually, check the Select Individual Packages box at the bottom of the screen. 

Selecting Individual Packages
After selecting the components you wish to install, you can select or deselect individual packages using your mouse. 

You can choose to view the individual packages in Tree View or Flat View. 

Tree View allows you to see the packages grouped by application type. 

Flat View allows you to see all of the packages in an alphabetical listing on the right of the screen. 

Selecting Individual Packages

Using Tree View, you see a listing of package groups. When you expand this list (by double-clicking on the folder arrow beside a package group name) and pick one group, the list of packages in that group appears in the panel on the right. Flat View allows you to see all of the packages in an alphabetical listing on the right of the screen. 

To sort packages alphabetically, click on the Package tab. To sort packages by size, click on the Size (MB) tab. 

To select an individual package, double-click the checkbox beside the package name. A check mark in the box means that a package has been selected. 

For more information about a specific package, click on the individual package name. The package information will appear at the bottom of the screen. 

You can also select or deselect all packages listed within a particular group, by clicking on the Select all in group or Unselect all in group buttons. 
 

 Note
  Some packages (such as the kernel and certain libraries) are required for every system and are not available to select or deselect. These base packages are selected by default. 
 

Unresolved Dependencies
Many software packages, in order to work correctly, depend on other software packages that must be installed on your system. For example, many of the graphical Red Hat system administration tools require the python and pythonlib packages. To make sure your system has all the packages it needs in order to be fully functional, the installation program checks these package dependencies each time you install or remove software packages. 

If any package requires another package which you have not selected to install, the program presents a list of these unresolved dependencies and gives you the opportunity to resolve them. 

The Unresolved Dependencies screen appears only if you are missing packages that are needed by the packages you have selected. At the bottom of the screen, under the list of missing packages, an Install packages to satisfy dependencies checkbox is selected by default. If you leave this checked, the installation program will resolve dependencies automatically by adding all required packages to the list of selected packages. 

Unresolved Dependencies

If you do not wish to install packages that require other packages, select Do not install packages that have dependencies.

To install only the packages you have selected and leave the dependencies unresolved, select Ignore package dependencies.
 

 Tip
  To install or remove packages after you have completed the installation, use the Package Management Tool.

Type the redhat-config-packages command in a shell prompt to launch the Package Management Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.
 

-Preparing to Install
You should now see a screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Linux. 

For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log once you reboot your system.
 

 Warning
  If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process, this is your last opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your machine. Once you press the Next button, partitions will be written and packages will be installed. If you wish to abort the installation, you should reboot now before any existing information on any hard drive is rewritten. 
 

To cancel this installation process, press your computer's Reset button or use the [Control]-[Alt]-[Delete] key combination to restart your machine. 
 
 

Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed. 




Boot Diskette Creation
To create a boot diskette, insert a blank, formatted diskette into your diskette drive and click Next. 

It is highly recommended that you create a boot diskette. If, for some reason, your system were not able to boot properly using GRUB, LILO, or a third-party boot loader, a boot diskette would enable you to properly boot your Red Hat Linux system. 

After a short delay, your boot diskette will be created; remove it from your diskette drive and label it clearly. Note that if you would like to create a boot diskette after the installation, you will be able to do so. For more information, please see the mkbootdisk man page, by typing man mkbootdisk at the shell prompt. 

If you do not want to create a boot diskette, make sure to select the appropriate option before you click Next.

If you boot your system with the boot diskette (instead of GRUB or LILO) , make sure you create a new boot diskette whenever you make any changes to your kernel (including the installation of a new kernel). 


Video Card Configuration
The installation program will now present a list of video cards for you to choose from. 

If you decided to install the X Window System packages, you now have the opportunity to configure an X server for your system. If you did not choose to install the X Window System packages, skip ahead to Preparing to Install. 

If your video card does not appear on the list, X may not support it. However, if you have technical knowledge about your card, you may choose Unlisted Card and attempt to configure it by matching your card's video chipset with one of the available X servers. 
 
 

Next, enter the amount of video memory installed on your video card. If you are not sure, please consult the documentation accompanying your video card. You will not damage your video card by choosing more memory than is available, but the X server may not start correctly if you do. 

If you decide that the values you have selected are incorrect, you can click the Restore original values button to return to the suggested settings. 

You can also select Skip X Configuration if you would rather configure X after the installation or not at all. 
 

 Tip
  To change your X configuration after you have completed the installation, use the X Configuration Tool.

Type the redhat-config-xfree86 command in a shell prompt to launch the X Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.

X Configuration — Monitor and Customization
In order to complete X configuration, you must configure your monitor and customize your X settings.

If you chose to skip X configuration, go to  Installation Complete. 

Configuring Your Monitor
The installation program will present you with a list of monitors to select from. From this list, you can either use the monitor that is automatically detected for you, or choose another monitor. 
 

 Note
  If you are installing Red Hat Linux on a laptop with an LCD screen, you should select the most appropriate Generic model available.
 

If your monitor does not appear on the list, select the most appropriate Generic model available. If you select a Generic monitor, the installation program will suggest horizontal and vertical sync ranges. These values are generally available in the documentation which accompanies your monitor, or from your monitor's vendor or manufacturer; please check your documentation to make sure these values are set correctly. 
 

 Caution
  Do not select a monitor similar to your monitor unless you are certain that the monitor you are selecting does not exceed the capabilities of your monitor. Doing so may overclock your monitor and damage or destroy it. 

Monitor Selection

The horizontal and vertical ranges that the installation program suggests for the selected monitor are also displayed below the list of monitors. 

If you decide that your monitor selection or the horizontal and vertical ranges are incorrect, you can click the Restore original values button to return to the original suggested settings. 

Click Next when you have finished configuring your monitor. 

Custom Configuration
Choose the correct color depth and resolution for your X configuration. 

If you are performing a custom or server installation, you can also choose whether you want to boot your system into a graphical or text environment once the installation is complete. Unless you have special needs, booting into a graphical environment (similar to a Windows environment) is recommended. If you choose to boot into a text environment, you will be presented with a command prompt (similar to a DOS environment). 

Personal desktop and workstation installations will automatically boot into a graphical environment.
 
 

X Customization



 
 

 Tip 
  To change your X configuration after you have completed the installation, use the X Configuration Tool.

Type the redhat-config-xfree86 command in a shell prompt to launch the X Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it will prompt you for the root password to continue.

Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Linux 9 installation is now complete! 

The installation program will prompt you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any installation media (diskette in the diskette drive or CD in the CD-ROM drive) if they are not ejected automatically upon reboot. 

If you do not have a boot loader installed and configured, you will need to use the boot diskette you created during the installation now. 

After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, you should see the graphical boot loader prompt, at which you can do any of the following things: 
 

Press [Enter] — causes the default boot entry to be booted. 

Select a boot label, followed by [Enter] — causes the boot loader to boot the operating system corresponding to the boot label. (Press [?] or [Tab] at LILO's text mode boot loader prompt for a list of valid boot labels.) 

Do nothing — after the boot loader's timeout period, (by default, five seconds) the boot loader will automatically boot the default boot entry. 

Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Linux. You should see one or more screens of messages scroll by. Eventually, you should see a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System and chose to start X automatically). 
 

 Tip
  If you are not sure what to do next, we suggest you begin with the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide (available online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/ if not included as part of your boxed set), which covers topics relating to the basics of your system and is an introduction to using Red Hat Linux. 

If you are a more experienced user looking for information on administration topics, you may find the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide to be more helpful. 

If you are looking for information on system configuration, you may find the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide to be helpful. 
 

The first time you start your Red Hat Linux machine, you will be presented with the Setup Agent, which guides you through the Red Hat Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. The Setup Agent lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Linux system quickly. For more information on using the Setup Agent, refer to the chapter titled Getting Started in the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide.
 
 
 

Source for information:
Red Hat Linux 9
Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide
Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/

Page by A. Bancroft for EDF 713  Spring 2004